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Effect of maternal smoking on colostrum and breast milk cytokines

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dc.contributor.authors Piskin, IE; Karavar, HN; Arasli, M; Ermis, B;
dc.date.accessioned 2020-02-27T08:34:00Z
dc.date.available 2020-02-27T08:34:00Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.citation Piskin, IE; Karavar, HN; Arasli, M; Ermis, B; (2012). Effect of maternal smoking on colostrum and breast milk cytokines. EUROPEAN CYTOKINE NETWORK, 23, 190-187
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1684/ecn.2013.0324
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12619/66420
dc.description.abstract Background: Breast milk contains several immune modulator components. The transfer of numerous cytokines via mother's milk may add to an active stimulation of the infant's immune system. There are many factors in breast milk that could either facilitate or inhibit cytokine activities. Smoking negatively influences the immune system and changes the concentrations of important cytokines. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of smoking during pregnancy on the cytokines found in colostrum and mature human milk. Methods: The study population included 25 smoker and 27 non-smoker nursing mothers who gave birth to a term healthy infant via cesarean section. Breast milk was collected from the mothers on the 2nd-3rd and 21st-25th days postpartum during visits to examine the newborns. Samples were analyzed for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta cytokines by flow cytometric bead array. Results: We first saw that concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta cytokines, but not IL-12, were measurable both in colostrum and in mature milk, being higher in colostrum. Next we observed that IL-1 beta and IL-8 levels were significantly lower in colostrum, and IL-6 was found to be significantly lower in the mature milk of smoking mothers. No significant effects of maternal smoking on breast milk concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta were observed. Conclusions: These findings indicate that maternal smoking alters the colostrum and mature milk levels of some cytokines. Therefore, it is thought that active smoking during pregnancy decreases the concentration of certain cytokines in breast milk, which might account for the newborn's increased susceptibility to infections.
dc.language English
dc.subject Immunology
dc.title Effect of maternal smoking on colostrum and breast milk cytokines
dc.type Article
dc.identifier.volume 23
dc.identifier.startpage 187
dc.identifier.endpage 190
dc.contributor.department Sakarya Üniversitesi/Tıp Fakültesi/Dahili Tıp Bilimleri Bölümü
dc.contributor.saüauthor Ermiş, Bahri
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000314827700010
dc.identifier.doi 10.1684/ecn.2013.0324
dc.identifier.eissn 1952-4005
dc.contributor.author Ermiş, Bahri

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